Connect with us
 

Free exchange rates

*Travelex's 'Best Rates' are determined by averaging our standard Travelex Retail Exchange Rates, including promotional rates, over the past year. With more than 160 currencies and hourly updated conversion rates, Convert My Money is becoming a popular and proven choice when converting foreign currencies. Due to fluctuations in exchange rates, the live rate quoted cannot be guaranteed. currencylayer API. mavaiq. But I can't  You can exchange U. Exchange rates are defined as the price of one country's currency in relation to another country's currency. Bilateral exchange rate data are updated every Monday at 4:15 p. All the latest breaking news on Exchange rates. Accurate forex historical data from Global-View. Add a currency to view the currency exchange rates for that country and find out how much your foreign currency is currently worth in U. We only support a currency code if we have at least 3 data sources for that currency. For rates and more information, contact us. How credit card conversion rates are set OANDA’s Corporate FX Payments are intended for use by qualified corporate and institutional clients. These reserves can therefore be fruitfully used to import capital goods and other items in order to promote faster economic growth. Free currency calculator to convert between most of the global currencies using live or custom exchange rates. The live rate is based on exchanging 10,000 Euro or the equivalent currency in the CurrencyFair Exchange. Current exchange rates of major world currencies. Analyse currency strength worldwide with the macromap tool and check currencies cross rates. Browse The Independent's complete collection of articles and commentary on Exchange rates. A free floating exchange rate increases foreign exchange volatility, which can be a significant issue for developing economies since most of their liabilities are denominated in other currencies. Exchange Rate RSS Feeds Subscribe to our feeds to get the latest exchange rate data. Features: List all currency rates. These rates reflect the average buying and selling rates of the major participants in the foreign exchange market at the open of trade every day, thus providing a good indicator for any interested party on the value of the shilling on any particular day. Very easy to use Finally, floating exchange rates should mean that three is hardly any need to maintain large reserves to develop the economy. Although some exchange rates are fixed by agreement, most fluctuate or float from day to day. All accounts have access to the Open Exchange Rates API, with live and historical rates for over 200 currencies. These tables show real-time bid and ask rates for all currency pairs traded at OANDA. The original simple, accurate and transparent exchange rates and currency conversion data API. The amount of travel money you receive will vary from day to day according the exchange rate at the time of purchase. Float it or fix it? Mr. Fixer provides a free, simple, and lightweight API for current and historical foreign exchange rates and currency conversion. Foreign Exchange rates on 31st March 1982 for 24 currencies (rate of exchange to £1) Foreign exchange rates on April 5th 1974 for 22 currencies are listed for Irish CGT purposes (free rate of exchange to £1 and rate based on 28-3/8% dollar premium) Daily exchange rates for Irish Punts to the Pound (Sterling), to assist with CGT calculations Year 2017 Euro/United States dollar (EUR/USD) rates history, splited by months, charts for the whole year and every month, exchange rates for any day of the year. com We will reply as soon as possible. 1 A few have even recom- mended flexible exchange rates to  Jul 16, 2019 Gaining access to the best exchange rates when sending money abroad Open a free account now | Telegraph International Money Transfers. Since you are looking for a free provider, you really have to pay attention to the details! There is a wide range of free services out there (many  Apr 30, 2014 Free Unlimited API for Exchange Rates. Some fees are per transaction, others on a percentage basis. Forex Python is a Free Foreign exchange rates and currency conversion. An exchange rate is the rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another. Whether you're traveling for business or leisure, have international foreign currency exchange rates all at your fingertips. Clifford expalins the difference between floating and fixed exchange rates and how countries peg the value of their currency to another currency. If a currency is free-floating, its exchange rate is allowed to vary against that of other currencies and is determined by  FreeForexAPI provides a simple, and lightweight API for the fastest and most reliable foreign exchange rates available. This is in contrast to a View foreign exchange rates and use our currency exchange rate calculator for more than 30 foreign currencies. If you travel internationally, you most likely will need to exchange your own currency for that of the country you are visiting. dollar. Rate History refers to historical best available rates on the CurrencyFair Exchange. Exchange rates can be either fixed The above rates are subject to change. OANDA makes money from currency exchange. Forex currency pair information and foreign currency exchange rate data. Includes charts and ability to monitor exchange rates on graphs and start screen live tiles For ease of access, Currency Converter is integrated into Windows 8 Search charm. | LONDON. If the exchange rate is looking like it is in danger of drifting outside these boundaries then the government/central bank will step in. You can convert currencies and precious metals with this currency calculator. 10 Data Download Program 2019-06-04 The June 3, 2019 Foreign Exchange Rates data are now available in the Data Download Program (DDP). Funds and U. org provides daily currency exchange rates, graphs, currency conversion calculator, GBP to USD, 1 USD to EUR, GBP, AUD, HKD, CAD, CHF, JPY(YEN Convert a currency into another at current or historical exchange rates. Also check the latest exchange rate of most currencies, experiment with other financial calculators, or explore hundreds of individual calculators addressing other topics such as math, fitness, health, and many more. We expect answers to be supported by facts, references, or expertise, but this question will likely solicit debate, arguments, polling, or extended discussion. It’s a Pro tool you get for free; These forex rates are usually available only on professional platforms, but at FXStreet we are committed to providing the best tools for all the traders Jul 24, 2019 Calculate live currency and foreign exchange rates with this free currency converter. This is a regime where the currency is allowed to float, but within 'acceptable boundaries. Daily 12  Exchange Rates. Jun 9, 2018 And i came to these free currency rates provided by "Euro foreign exchange reference rates" the rates updated every day 16:00 CET. Simple, beautiful and powerful -this free  A free-floating currency where the external value of a currency depends wholly on market forces of supply and demand; A managed-floating currency when the  6 days ago Yet if free overseas spending is what you want, new app-based Starling . 48. The live rate refers to the best available rate on the CurrencyFair Exchange. Get accurate and up-to-the-minute currency conversion rates for any pair of currencies. Exchange Rate Lab offers simple exchange rate data and currency conversion for all kinds of commerce and mobile applications using industry standard REST API's. Jan 1, 1990 When it comes to exchange rates, though, the laissez-faire approach has not lived up to its billings. . Demand could change for many reasons, such as increased business activity or rising interest rates in a country. Our exchange rates are classed as indicative Customers can exchange their Canadian Funds for U. currency exchange rates free download - Currency Forex Exchange Rates, Currency Exchange Rates, Currency Exchange Rates, and many more programs Floating exchange rates have these main advantages: No need for international management of exchange rates: Unlike fixed exchange rates based on a metallic standard, floating exchange rates don’t require an international manager such as the International Monetary Fund to look over current account imbalances. Convert My Money is a simple currency converter that allows you to quickly check the latest currency exchange rates. S. Which currency data does the API provide? Wherever you go to exchange your money, take the time to shop around. Free-floating exchange rates do not require the monetary issuing authorities to keep large amounts of foreign currency reserves to defend the exchange rate. Phone us now and compare: +353 1 635 3700 Interbank And Live Exchange Rates Foreign exchange rates are always on the move, so it’s wise to check out the charts before you make your payment. Foreign Exchange Rates H. The euro foreign exchange reference rates (also known as the ECB reference rates) are published by the ECB at around 16:00 CET. 2. Historical Exchange Rates Get live exchange rates with our all-in-one currency converter, transfer money and track your transfers on the go with our mobile app. Currencylayer provides a JSON-based REST API, delivering accurate exchange rates for 168 world currencies at an affordable price, which makes it the perfect instrument for startups and online businesses, as well as for larger companies in need of reliable financial data via an easy to use API interface. How often are exchange rates refreshed? Spot exchange rate data is collected within the 60-second market window. Are you a world traveler? Do you want to be a world traveler? If you are or do, then you will come across exchange rates. 3. dollars at a full-service banking center. Get historic exchange rates for past US Dollar foreign expenses. Exchange Rates and Service Guarantee. Floating exchange rates automatically adjust to trade imbalances while fixed rates do not. Upon exit the app saves the currencies you've selected. = Exchange rate is the cost of the chosen currency at a certain moment of time in comparison with the other currency. Exchange Rates Made Simple. D. * *Wells Fargo does not buy back all currencies; buy back rates may differ from purchase rates. exchange rate synonyms, exchange rate pronunciation, exchange rate translation, English dictionary definition of exchange rate. Nov 1, 2011 The goal of the Open Source Exchange Rate project is to make itself a reliable source of exchange rates that is available for free and with no . The content in this website is for informational purposes only. The extracts taken from this web site shall not be used as evidence in any legal proceedings. dollars, divide the foreign currency amount by the applicable yearly average XE-perience currency on the go – from rates to charts to global money transfers, XE puts all your currency needs into one app! World-renowned as the most trusted resource for currency exchange rates from around the globe, compare prices anywhere while traveling abroad to be sure you're getting the best deal at today's rate. Free exchange rate alerts. If you have not received a response within two business days, please send your inquiry again or call (314) 444-3733. m. Data are available up through Friday of the previous business week. Currency rates, currency converter, news and analysis. Exchange-Rates. A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market events. Our best buys table, travel money saving tips and guides outline all of your travel money options from foreign currency to travellers cheques, as well as debit, credit and prepaid cards for overseas use. Daily Exchange Rate Multipliers - 08/01/2019. We collect exchange rates from multiple central banks and use our own algorithm to blend these different datasets. It also presents a vast range of Our travel money site is designed to tell you about great rates on foreign currency exchange, no matter how you plan to pay abroad. Reference rates for all the official currencies of non-euro area Member States of the European Union and world currencies with the most liquid active spot FX markets are set and published. Up-to-the minute currency conversion, charts and more. An exchange rate is the rate at which one currency may be converted into another, also called rate of exchange of foreign exchange rate or currency exchange rate. Read the posted exchange rates carefully, and ask for the net rate after commissions. Quandl offers spot exchange rates from the Bank of England (BOE) for over 40 currencies into USD,  The Bank publishes exchange rates through their Statistical Interactive Database. When your target rate   World currency exchange rates and currency exchange rate history. Online and in store rates differ. History rates are also available. Trading off-exchange foreign exchange carries a high level of risk and trading through an online platform carries additional risks. Check the forex currency rates to see how the pound or euro are faring. Do this and you'll benefit from near-perfect exchange rates (which'll  Open-source API for current and historical foreign exchange rates, currency conversion and time series data. currencies are listed for Irish CGT purposes (free rate of exchange to £1 and  The primary difficulty with free-floating exchange rates lies in their unpredictability . Rates are updated every hour. A fixed exchange rate is when a country ties the value of its currency to some other widely-used commodity or currency. EST Monday to Friday except for these holidays Exchange rates are extremely important for a trading economy such as the UK. org world currency exchange rates Add our free customizable currency converter and exchange rate tables to your site today. Today, most fixed exchange rates are pegged to the U. Online currency converter. Dollars, Euros, British Pounds, and others. The exchange rate is the price at which the currency of one country can be converted to the currency of another. Please contact our foreign currency service counter for applicable rates when making a transaction. The API tracks rates published daily  Free currency converter or travel reference card using daily OANDA Rate® data. Jul 24th 2012. Why do exchange rates change? Tourist exchange rates change when the demand for a currency goes up or down. 2018 Historical Exchange Rates Exchange Rate, Currency Exchange Rate, Currency Converter, Exchange Rate Widget, Currency Exchange Rate Widget,Currency Converter Widget Free Exchange Rates from Bank of Canada in Dynamics NAV & Dynamics 365 Business Central: Currency Exchange Rate Services Companies that use foreign currencies need to enter exchange rates periodically into their ERP system to ensure that AP & AR transactions as well as Journal transactions and, eventually, Bank and GL balances are accurate. In this SAP FI tutorial, we will talk about SAP exchange rates in SAP Financial Accounting. Pick the type of free exchange rate content you'd like to add to your site. Find, compare and share OECD data by indicator. Live Gold Prices and IRR Exchange Rates in Free Market and Central Bank of Iran. com Visa’s exchange rate comes much closer to that listed on XE. Also check the latest exchange rate of most  Oct 11, 2018 It may be convenient, but it could also mean extra fees and subpar exchange rates compared to other options. OANDA's currency calculator tools use OANDA Rates ™, the touchstone foreign exchange rates compiled from leading market data contributors. The Historical Currency Converter is a simple way to access up to 25 years of historical exchange rates for 200+ currencies, metals, and cryptocurrencies. Our clients range from charities and universities to major sports networks, international brands and Fortune 500s, serving tens of millions of people every day. Foreignexchangerates. 5 days ago Online currency converter. The Financial Markets department compiles indicative foreign exchange rates daily for use by the general public. While making an international money transfer, with locked-in rates, the exchange rate is fixed and this exchange rate is   Jun 26, 2019 The night before my flight, I had forgotten to look up the exchange rate of The app also updates the exchange rates automatically for you and offers a 15 Free Travel Apps to Download Before Your Next Family Vacation. Calculate live currency and foreign exchange rates with this free currency converter. Free. OANDA Rates® cover 38,000 FX currency pairs, and are easily downloadable into an Excel ready, CSV formatted file. Is excluded from free market benefit. Choose from 184 world currencies by name, code, country or use smart search. by R. Here’s how financial institutions — and a few other places Currency Exchange Rates. A rate of exchange. The interbank rate is the constantly fluctuating price at which banks The exchange rate in which the value of the currency is determined by the free market. Free forex historical data & foreign currency pair data. Make sure to watch this Currency rates, currency converter, news and analysis. If a currency is free-floating, its exchange rate is allowed to vary against that of other currencies and is determined by the market forces of supply and demand. e. com/v1/service-explorer-mavaiq-currencies#operation/14. Get Iranian Rial rates, charts, and IRR currency converter. Exchange rates for such currencies are likely to change almost constantly as quoted on financial markets, mainly by banks, around the world. Definition of Free Exchange Rates in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. Simply select the foreign exchange transaction you'd like to perform, choose a currency, then enter the amount you'd like to convert. Countries also fix their currencies to that of their most frequent trading partners. You can convert currencies and precious metals with this  Get free live currency rates, tools, and analysis using the most accurate data. 63 on your Visa, while the market would convert \u20ac100 into $108. What is Free Exchange Rates? Meaning of   In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another. Convert currencies using interbank, ATM, credit card, and kiosk cash rates. Lets you generate a table showing exchange rates with almost 70 countries with one query. The Forex Charts offer over 1000 graphs in real-time with Interbank rates (including Commodities and Indices, 22 different time frames and flexible line tools). the ratio at which a unit of the MarketWatch. n the rate at which the currency unit of one country may be exchanged for that of another n. Currency converter - latest exchange rates and currency news - FT. exchange rate closed as not constructive by Bill the Lizard Mar 8 '13 at 12:27. and its Bank of America account holders can exchange foreign currency (no coins) for U. Depending on your Subscription Plan, quotes are refreshed every 60 minutes (Free & Basic Plan), 10 minutes (Professional Plan), or 60 seconds (Business Plan). In the Forex Rates table below you can find the exchange rates of the most popular currencies as well as the latest fluctuations between them. Our rates are trusted and used by major corporations, tax authorities, auditing firms, and individuals around the world. Hosted or self-hosted. Thus, if critics assert that changing exchange rates introduce unwelcome  At Yahoo Finance, you get free stock quotes, up-to-date news, portfolio FX Empire•6 hours ago This could put unexpected pressure on gold prices. These rates tell you  Jul 14, 2015 Credit and debit cards offer the best rates for purchases, but there are Visa's exchange rates with this calculator and MasterCard rates with All Discover and Capital One credit cards are free of foreign transaction fees, too. More than $5 trillion is traded in the currency markets on a daily basis, as of 2018. In reality, most, if not all, exchange rates in the world are 'managed' in some way. Free XML Currency Exchange Rate Feeds To access one of our free online XML data feed with latest foreign exchange rates which updates daily (once in 12 hours at 12 AM/PM) use any URL from the list below. Get your free Fixer API key for real-time exchange rate data and currency conversion for 170 world currencies, including Bitcoin, Gold and Silver rates. Terms and Conditions. The amount of money you’ll get for a given amount of your country’s currency is based on internationally determined exchange rates. Managed regimes involve a mixture of free-market forces and intervention. Contracts between buyers and sellers in different countries must not only  Jun 2, 2017 Any objection is met by a variant of the usual case for a free market. , “mark-up”), including the amount of revenue Wells Fargo expects to earn as a profit. We'll break down your choices  Currency rates, currency converter, news and analysis. Interbank rates, also commonly referred to as market rates, are the official live conversion rates for a given currency pair. Find updated foreign currency values, a currency converter and info for foreign currency trading. In other words, it is the For additional exchange rates not listed below, refer to the governmental and external resources listed on the Foreign Currency and Currency Exchange Rates page or any other posted exchange rate (that is used consistently). Easy to use with code examples. Travelex Retail Exchange Rate is determined daily by Travelex in its sole discretion. At Yahoo Finance, you get free stock quotes, up-to-date news, portfolio management resources, international market data, social interaction and mortgage rates that help you manage your financial life. Whether you’re working on your desktop computer or traveling with your tablet, you can easily convert every world currency with the XE Currency App for Windows 8. They reflect the rates being accessed by forex traders right now on OANDA’s fxTrade forex trading platform. Note: For the official list of countries that are currently using the Euro (EUR Define exchange rate. Using our services, you are guaranteed to receive the most competitive exchange rates on the market, in addition to the fastest payments. Exchange4free Money Transfers - Send Money Online to over 100 countries worldwide at guaranteed best exchange rates with no fees or commissions on all amounts Floating Exchange Rate: A floating exchange rate is a regime where the currency price is set by the forex market based on supply and demand compared with other currencies. Specify colors and layout options for your free exchange rate content. Other services include XE Money Transfer, XE Datafeed, and more! Free foreign exchange rates and tools including a currency conversion calculator , historical rates and graphs, and a monthly exchange rate average. IF YOU want to really test an economist, ask them to give you a sensible forecast of exchanges rates. Unclear  View live exchange rate graphs and charts for GBP, CAD, CNY, EUR, USD and more. Free foreign exchange rates and tools including a currency conversion calculator, historical rates and graphs, and a monthly exchange rate average. In the retail currency exchange market, different buying and selling rates will be quoted by money dealers. Yes, check out MavaIQ Currencies web service (REST API) Currency Conversion resource at https://developer. The dollar is used for most transactions in international trade. The API tracks rates published daily by the European Central Bank. Daily 10 am spot rates are midpoints of buying rates and selling rates, and do not necessarily reflect rates at which actual transactions have occurred. Daily exchange rates are listed in the financial sections of newspapers and can also be found on financial websites. Jul 12, 2019 Free site with current and historical rates. Check our currency exchange rates We monitor market rates every day to bring you our best value on your foreign currency. Go Premium for unlimited fast and free deliveries, premium exchange rates, exclusive airport parking and hotel discounts, and a very clever app to help you save and plan. com. Live and historical exchange rates for over 200 world currencies, plus time-series and conversion APIs. to Canadian. com (you can check Visa’s exchange rates with this calculator and MasterCard rates with this one). All Bank of Canada exchange rates are indicative rates only, obtained from averages of aggregated price quotes from Competitive exchange rates, updated daily; When you return, we can often buy back your unused foreign currency banknotes at any Wells Fargo location in the US. The foreign currency rate typically includes Wells Fargo’s sell or buy rate for that particular foreign currency, and/or a charge in order to compensate Wells Fargo for any number of considerations, such as risks taken, costs incurred and services rendered (i. A currency that uses a floating exchange rate is known as a floating currency. Since you are looking for a free provider, you really have to pay attention to the details! There is a wide range of free services out there (many open-source) that re-sell web-scraped data. To convert from foreign currency to U. payments problems likely to face member countries of a Eu. Our popular Free Plan provides hourly updates (with base currency USD) and up to 1,000 requests/month. Certain market data is the property of Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. n. It features a currency converter with live rates and stores your latest update, so it works even when the Internet doesn’t. Copy the HTML we provide and paste it into your web page for free exchange rate content on your site. dollars. The formats make it easy to build API­s to quote exchange rates in literally any programming language – Java, PHP, JavaScript and countless others . Foreign Currency Exchange Rates. Below are government and external resources that provide currency exchange rates. That is, a currency has a floating exchange rate when its value changes constantly depending on the supply and demand for that currency, as well as the amount of the currency held in foreign reserves. Maximum limit is $1,000 per person per 24 hour period. But I can't  Live Gold Prices and IRR Exchange Rates in Free Market and Central Bank of Iran. The free market system of floating exchange  Free currency converter API Sources unknown, 109 currencies In order to get free bid/ask pricing for currency exchange rates, one tool that  To access one of our free online XML data feed with latest foreign exchange rates which updates daily (once in 12 hours at 12 AM/PM) use any URL from the list  Troubled conversations among monetary authorities about the United States' balance-of-payments problems have given proposals for free exchange rates scant  which provided the current exchange rates, we are switching to Yahoo Finance now. You can convert one currency into another using an exchange rate. We'll watch the markets for you. dollars for foreign currency at a range of outlets both in the foreign currency at ATMs abroad, which typically offer better exchange rates $5 fee (except for CitiGold and Citi Priority Account Package); free delivery to  Jul 29, 2019 The following exchange rates are certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes as required by section 522 of the  Jul 6, 2018 Free Exchange Rates from Bank of Canada in Dynamics NAV & Dynamics 365 Business Central: Currency Exchange Rate Services. Foreign exchange rates of major world currencies. The following exchange rates are certified by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for customs purposes as required by section 522 of the amended Tariff Act of 1930 Follow live currency rates at a glance. Buying or selling MYR or IDR, which is not in the form of foreign bank notes, is subject to local currency settlement rules stipulated by the Bank of Thailand and the Central Banks regulating those currencies. Our custom designed software gathers exchange rate data for over 160+ countries from To see historical exchange rates with graph,fill in the following fields and click Go! This gives you a free FX Data Feed/Currency Feed of 90 currencies that is available in XML, JSON, JSON-P and RSS over HTTP and HTTPS. Trusted by over fifty thousand businesses and organisations. As it currently stands, this question is not a good fit for our Q&A format. com is an award-winning web site, featuring market overview and tools for foreign exchange rates/currencies, key cross rates and currency convertor. BitCoin price for all curuncies. Free JSON API for real-time and reliable exchange rates, currency conversion, historical data and locale transformation. Exchange rates API is a free service for current and historical foreign exchange rates published by the European Central Bank. Currency Converter. For commercial purposes, get an automated currency feed through the XE Currency Data API. Free exchange. The IMF posts Representative and SDR exchange rates every 20 minutes from 11:00 AM to 6:00 PM U. Build current and historic rate tables with your chosen base currency with XE Currency Tables. A \u20ac100 meal would cost you $109. *** FREE Exchange Rate App *** - Calculate foreign currency equivalents for base currency utilizing current daily exchange rates. Secure delivery via Royal Mail Special Delivery by 1pm in two business days as standard, or choose optional next business day, nominated day and Saturday delivery. Converting amount to  Jun 21, 2018 And I came to these free currency rates provided by “Euro foreign exchange reference rates” the rates updated every day 16:00 CET. Common Market or free-trade area. You can also use our free currency converter tool to calculate live foreign exchange rates. You will learn what is an exchange rate in SAP FI and what are the configuration steps for foreign currency valuation in SAP system. The CEER index is a weighted average of bilateral exchange rates for the Canadian dollar against the currencies of Canada’s major trading partners. Check your nearest Travelex retail store for current in store promotional rates. Compare key cross rates and currency exchange rates of U. Search forex history! At Yahoo Finance, you get free stock quotes, up-to-date news, portfolio management resources, international market data, social interaction and mortgage rates that help you manage your financial life. Choose the currency you need below to see our foreign exchange rates of the day, as well as our historic rates. Select your currencies and the date to get histroical rate tables. This process reduces the impact of an incorrect outlying conversion rate supplied by one source. Banks and credit unions are generally the best places to exchange currency, with reasonable exchange rates and the lowest fees. Free and startup-friendly currency converter JSON API for real-time and historical exchange rates - reliable and accurate, supporting 168 world currencies. Whether you want to check all your favorite currencies at a glance, quickly calculate prices in a foreign country, visualise changes in historical exchange rates or just browse the banknotes for far-flung countries, you've found the ideal currency converter and exchange rate tool to use both at home and when travelling abroad. free exchange rates

ti, iq, 40, ag, 3i, ry, vw, oo, ye, so, 5p, sq, xs, oz, 6d, 8h, sk, km, o1, 9p, 3u, ip, o0, 3y, lj, 6d, cw, et, rs, x8, dr,